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Precautions for the use of refrigerants and emergency treatment of leakage

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Precautions for the use of refrigerants and emergency treatment of leakage

Notes on the use of refrigerants

1. Avoid entering highly concentrated water vapor. Although some refrigerants are not flammable under normal temperature and pressure conditions, their mixtures can ignite and even explode under high pressure and high concentrations of air.

2. The storage of refrigerant should be kept away from fire sources and high temperature metal surfaces.

3. The toxicity of refrigerants is low, but high doses of inhaled refrigerants (eg: R407C) will cause anesthesia, and very high concentrations will cause abnormal heart rate and sudden death. If the concentration of R407C and R134a in the enclosed space is high, it will cause asphyxia due to hypoxia.

4. Eyes, hands and skin contact with refrigerant will cause frostbite, please wear antifreeze gloves when contact is required.

5. Mixed gas with air shall not be used for pressure and leak testing.

6. Do not heat the liquid receiver containing refrigerant. Heating and decomposition will produce highly toxic and (R407C strong corrosive) (R134a irritating) steam; if overheated, the liquid receiver will explode.

7. Do not hit or abuse the refrigerant bottle.

8. The refrigerant bottle must be placed vertically.

9. Use a suitable wrench to open and close the valve of the refrigerant bottle.


Refrigerant leakage and emergency treatment

When the refrigerant leaks, a lot of smoke emerges from the leak, and the surrounding environment has a strong pungent odor; the equipment and pipelines at the leak are cold and severely frozen.

1. Protective measures, protective equipment and emergency procedures for workers:

1) Delineate a warning area according to the influence area of the gas, and evacuate unrelated personnel to the safe area from the crosswind and upwind directions.

2) For safety, keep away from the leakage site.

3) It is recommended that emergency responders wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus and general work clothes. Do not touch or step over spillage.

4) Cut off the source of leakage as much as possible. Spray water to suppress vapour or redirect vapour cloud flow to avoid water contact with spillage.

5) It is forbidden to directly impact the leakage or leakage source with water.


Environmental protection measures:

1) Cut off the source of leakage as much as possible. Small spills can evaporate if there is adequate ventilation. If the spill is large, ventilate the area and cover it with sand or other suitable absorbent material.

2), prevent liquid from entering drains, sewers, basements or work pits, and prevent gas from spreading through sewers, ventilation systems and confined spaces. Because its vapor will cause suffocation.

3) The leaked air is allowed to be discharged into the atmosphere, and the leaking place is kept ventilated

4) If a fire occurs, use fire extinguishing media to put out the fire. Flush the refrigerant tank with water to cool it; or use a fire extinguisher.


Emergency rescue measures

1. Inhalation

Low concentrations of inhalation can irritate the mucous membranes, and high concentrations of R407C in the atmosphere will cause anesthesia, including loss of consciousness. Extremely high inhalation will result in abnormal heart rate and sudden death.

Acute poisoning: Mild cases manifest as skin and mucous membrane irritation, rhinitis, laryngitis, and bronchitis; corneal and skin burns may occur. In severe cases, laryngeal edema, glottis stenosis, airway mucosal cell shedding, airway obstruction and suffocation may occur, and there may be toxic pulmonary edema and liver damage.

Disposal method: If accidentally inhaled, the injured person should be kept away from the high-concentration area and recovered in a warm place. Oxygen if necessary. If breathing stops or becomes weak, give artificial respiration and seek medical attention nearby.

2. Skin contact

Skin contact with splashed liquid may cause frostbite.

If frostbite occurs:

1. Soak the affected part in warm water maintained at 38-42°C for rewarming.

2. Do not rub. Do not use hot water or radiant heat.

3. Change contaminated clothing.

4. Use a clean, dry dressing and seek medical attention.

Warning: After frostbite, clothing may stick to the skin.

3. Into the eye

Splashes can cause frostbite, clouding of the lens, perforation of the cornea, and even blindness. In case of accidental contact with eyes, rinse immediately with eye wash or water, and do not close eyes for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention immediately.

4. Eating by mistake

This is unlikely - but when it happens, it will cause frostbite. Do not force vomiting. If the injured person is still conscious, they should wash their mouth with clean water and make them drink 200-300ml of water. Get immediate medical attention, further medical treatment and medical support. For R407C, epinephrine and similar sympathomimetic drugs should be avoided due to cardiac inotropes.


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