Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-06-20 Origin: Site
The nature of the refrigerant is directly related to the cooling effect of the refrigeration equipment, and even personal safety. As members of refrigeration people, we should understand what commonly used refrigerants are and how to compare and manage them.
1. R22 refrigerant
The alias of R22 refrigerant is chlorodifluoromethane, freon 22, F-22, refrigerant HCFC-22. Freon R22 is one of the most widely used R22 refrigerant brands in China.
R22 refrigerant is used in reciprocating compressors, household air conditioners, central air conditioners, mobile air conditioners, heat pump water heaters, dehumidifiers, refrigerated dryers, cold storage, food refrigeration equipment, marine refrigeration equipment, industrial refrigeration, commercial refrigeration, refrigeration condensing equipment, Supermarket display cabinets, etc. R22 is also widely used as a raw material for polytetrafluoroethylene resin and an intermediate for gas fire extinguishing agent R1211, as well as a polymer (plastic) physical foaming agent. It is the basic raw material for the production of various fluorine-containing polymer compounds. R22 can also be used as an aerosol spray for pesticides and paints. It is the basic raw material for the production of various fluorine-containing polymer compounds.
2. R23 refrigerant
R23 refrigerant is an ultra-low temperature refrigerant trifluoromethane. Its aliases are HFC23, HFC-23, F23 and F-23.
As a widely used ultra-low temperature refrigerant, R23 is mainly used in environmental test chambers/equipment (cold and thermal shock testers), freeze dryers/freeze dryers, ultra-low temperature refrigerators or freezers, blood bank refrigerators, biochemical equipment and other low temperature equipment. Test chambers (including scientific research refrigeration, medical refrigeration), etc. Mostly used in the cryogenic stage of these cascade refrigeration systems. Trifluoromethane can also be used as a gas fire extinguishing agent, which has the characteristics of cleanliness, low toxicity and good fire extinguishing effect.
3. R32 refrigerant
R32, also known as HFC-32, difluoromethane, molecular formula: CH2F2, is a new type of environmentally friendly refrigerant, does not contain chlorine, has no damaging effect on ozone, but is flammable and explosive. It is one of the substitutes for R22 refrigerant and R410a refrigerant.
4. R134a refrigerant
R134a is the most widely used medium and low temperature refrigerant. Due to its good overall properties, R134a is a very effective and safe alternative to R12. Mainly used in most fields of R12 refrigerant.
These areas include: refrigerators, freezers, water dispensers, automotive air conditioners, central air conditioners, dehumidifiers, cold storage, commercial refrigeration, ice machines, ice cream machines, refrigeration condensing units and other refrigeration equipment, also used in aerosol propellants, medical gases Aerosols, insecticide propellants, polymeric (plastic) physical blowing agents and magnesium alloy shielding gases. R134a can be widely used as a refrigerant in automotive air conditioners, refrigerators, central air conditioners, commercial refrigeration, etc., and can also be used in medicine, pesticides, cosmetics, cleaning and other industries.
5. R290 refrigerant
The full name of R290 refrigerant is refrigeration grade propane, and the chemical formula is C3H8. R290 is a hydrocarbon refrigerant; it has no damage to the ozone layer and has a small greenhouse effect. It is one of the most environmentally friendly refrigerants.
It is mainly used to replace R22 and R502 refrigerants in low temperature refrigeration equipment; because R290 refrigerant is flammable and explosive, it is usually only used for low temperature refrigeration equipment with less liquid filling, or as a group of low temperature mixed refrigerants. R290 is compatible with conventional lubricants. High-purity grade R290 is used as a temperature-sensitive working fluid; superior and first-grade R290 can be used as refrigerants to replace R22 and R502, which are compatible with the original system and lubricating oil, and are suitable for small refrigeration equipment such as central air conditioners, heat pump air conditioners, and household air conditioners.
6. R600a refrigerant
R600a is an excellent hydrocarbon refrigerant made from natural ingredients that does not destroy the ozone layer and has no greenhouse effect. It has the characteristics of large latent heat of evaporation, strong cooling capacity, good flow performance, low conveying pressure, low power consumption, and slow recovery of load temperature. It is compatible with a wide range of compressor oils. (Note: When the R600a refrigeration system is insufficient, the pressure value is too large, the machine sound is abnormal, and the compressor life is shortened). R600a is a colorless gas at room temperature, and a colorless transparent liquid under its own pressure. It is a replacement for R12.
R600a refrigerant has large latent heat of evaporation, strong cooling capacity, good flow performance, low delivery pressure, low power consumption, and slow recovery of load temperature. R600a refrigerant is compatible with a wide range of compressor oils. Mainly used as an ultra-low temperature refrigerant, the refrigeration system composed of R22 is used for ultra-low temperature refrigeration equipment at -80 ~ -120 ℃. Also used as a blowing agent for foam, as a refrigerant to replace R12.
7. R433b refrigerant
R433b refrigerant is a hydrocarbon refrigerant, and its thermal performance is similar to that of R22. No need to change the original refrigeration system, it can directly replace R22. R433b has larger latent heat of evaporation than other refrigerants, faster cooling rate per unit time, smaller molecular weight, better flow performance and lower delivery pressure. It can reduce compressor load, extend compressor life, reduce power consumption, and reduce system operating costs.
R433B composition, mole percentage: propane accounts for 94.9918%, propylene accounts for 5.082%.
8. R436a refrigerant
R436A is a hydrocarbon refrigerant that does not destroy the ozone layer and has no greenhouse effect. The thermal properties of this refrigerant are similar to R134a. The mole percentage of R436A composition: R290 accounts for 62.6528%, R600a accounts for 37.3472%.
9. R404a refrigerant
R404a refrigerant composition: R125, R134A, R143A. As a widely used medium and low temperature refrigerant, R404A is often used in cold storage, food refrigeration equipment, marine refrigeration equipment, industrial low temperature refrigeration, commercial low temperature refrigeration, transportation refrigeration equipment (refrigerated vehicles, etc.), refrigeration condensation units, supermarket display cabinets. refrigeration equipment. R404A is the most popular industry standard refrigerant (usually in cryogenic refrigeration systems) to replace Freon R22 and R502 on new refrigeration equipment.
10. R407c refrigerant
R407c is an environmentally friendly medium and high temperature refrigerant which is mixed with R32, R125 and R134a in a certain proportion. Used in various air conditioning systems and non-centrifugal refrigeration systems. Mainly used in household air conditioners, small and medium commercial air conditioners (small and medium unit air conditioners, household central air conditioners, multi-connection), mobile air conditioners (automotive air conditioners, etc.), dehumidifiers, refrigerated dryers, marine refrigeration equipment, industrial refrigeration and other refrigeration equipment .
R407c is the easiest choice to replace Freon R22 on newly installed refrigeration equipment (usually air conditioning systems); however, due to the differences between R407C and R22 in physical and chemical properties, theoretical cycle performance, compressor oil, etc., it is used in the initial installation. R22 refrigerant. For after-sales maintenance of refrigeration equipment, if it is necessary to add or replace refrigerant, only R22 can be added, and R407c cannot be directly replaced with R22.
11. R410a refrigerant
R410a is a new environmentally friendly refrigerant that does not destroy the ozone layer. The working pressure is 1.6 times that of R22. High cooling efficiency and improved air conditioning performance. The new refrigerant R410a consists of a 50% quasi-azeotropic mixture of R32 and R125. Stable, non-toxic and superior performance.
As a medium and high temperature refrigerant widely used today, R410a is mainly used in household air conditioners, small and medium commercial air conditioners (small and medium unit air conditioners, household central air conditioners, multi-unit), mobile air conditioners, dehumidifiers and freeze dryers. Marine refrigeration equipment, industrial refrigeration and other refrigeration equipment. R410A is the best and final choice to replace Freon R22 on new refrigeration equipment; due to the different pressures of R410a and R22 (the pressure of R410a is much higher than that of R22), the compressor oil is also different, so for the initial installation of R22 refrigerant after-sales of refrigeration equipment Maintenance, if you need to add or replace refrigerant, you can only add R22,
Compared to R22, the cooling capacity of R410a is significantly increased, allowing the design of smaller and more compact air-conditioning units. Due to R410a's near-azeotropic physical properties, the refrigerant temperature slip is less than 0.2 °C over the entire operating range.
12. R502 refrigerant
R502 is a low temperature refrigerant with excellent cooling performance and high cooling performance. Main uses of R502 refrigerant: It can be used as a refrigerant for food display, food storage, refrigeration, ice cream, refrigerators, low temperature refrigerators and heating compressors.
It is a mixture of R125 refrigerant and R143 refrigerant, which is an environmentally friendly refrigerant that does not destroy the ozone layer. Mainly used in medium/low temperature commercial refrigeration systems. It is a long-term replacement for R-502 refrigerant (an HFC based substance), has zero ODP and does not contain any ozone depleting substances. Since R304 refrigerant is very close to R502 in cooling capacity and efficiency, and has excellent heat transfer performance and low toxicity, R507 is more suitable for medium and low temperature refrigeration applications than any other R-502 alternative.
13. R507 refrigerant
Like R404a, R507 is an environmentally friendly alternative to R502, but R507 is generally cooler than R404a. R507 refrigerant mole percentage: R125 accounts for 41.184%, R143a accounts for 58.816%.
R507 is suitable for medium and low temperature commercial refrigeration equipment (supermarket freezers, cold storage, display cabinets, transportation), ice making equipment, transportation refrigeration equipment, marine refrigeration equipment or retrofit equipment, and is suitable for all R502 environments. Mainly used as an ultra-low temperature refrigerant, the refrigeration system composed of F22 is used for ultra-low temperature refrigeration equipment at -80 ~ -120 ℃. Also used as a blowing agent for foam, as a refrigerant to replace R12.
14. R717 refrigerant
R717 (ammonia) refrigerant, ammonia is a medium temperature refrigerant, the chemical formula is NH3, the boiling point temperature is -33.4°C, the freezing point is -77.7°C, the critical temperature is 133°C, and the critical pressure is 11.417 MPa. Pure ammonia has no adverse effect on lubricating oil, but when there is moisture, it will reduce the lubricating effect of refrigeration oil. In ammonia refrigeration systems, copper and copper alloys are not used for piping and valve components.
R717 (ammonia) has a mature synthesis process, easy preparation, low price, no damage to the ozone layer, and no greenhouse effect. The pressure of ammonia refrigerant in the condenser and evaporator is moderate (the condensation pressure is generally 0.981 MPa, and the evaporation pressure is generally 0.098-0.49 MPa); the cooling capacity per unit volume is greater than R22; the latent heat of vaporization is large, and the refrigeration and heat release coefficients are high. . Ammonia refrigerant is widely used in large refrigerators and supermarket food display cabinets.
Ammonia vapor is colorless and has a strong pungent odor. Ammonia is highly toxic to humans and can cause frostbite when splashed on the skin. When the volume of ammonia vapor in the air reaches 0.5-0.6%, it can cause an explosion. Therefore, the concentration of ammonia in the air of the equipment room shall not exceed 0.02mg/L. Ammonia is not easily combustible at room temperature, but decomposes into nitrogen and hydrogen when heated to 350°C. When hydrogen gas mixes with oxygen in the air, an explosion occurs.
By reading this introdcution article, we hope you have a main idea of the basic difference and application of different types of refrigerant gas.