Views:5 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-04-28 Origin:Site
Recently, the leaders of China, Germany, and France held a video summit. The leaders of the three countries exchanged in-depth views on cooperation in tackling climate change, China-EU relations, anti-epidemic cooperation, and major international and regional issues.
At the summit, China announced that it had decided to accept the "Montreal Protocol" Kigali Amendment (hereinafter referred to as the "Kigali Amendment") to strengthen the control of non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases such as HFCs.
The Kigali Amendment was reached by the 197 parties to the Montreal Protocol on October 15, 2016, and agreed on the reduction of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), a potent greenhouse gas that causes global warming.
The amendment clearly included 18 hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) such as HFC134, HFC134a, HFC143, HFC245fa, etc. in the list of controlled substances. According to the reduction schedule set by the "Kigali Amendment", most developed countries will start to reduce HFCs in 2019 and reduce HFCs by 85% from the baseline level by 2036; most developing countries including China will The production and consumption of HFCs will be frozen in 2024, 10% will be reduced from the baseline level in 2029, and 80% will be reduced by 2045.
Super greenhouse gases will be restricted for production and use
HFCs appear as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and are widely used as refrigerants in refrigerators, air conditioners and other products. Although HFCs have no destructive effect on the ozone layer, they have a very high greenhouse effect potential. Its power is thousands of times that of carbon dioxide, which is also a greenhouse gas, and is called a "super greenhouse gas."
HFCs are currently the fastest growing greenhouse gas in the world, and their emissions are increasing at an annual rate of 10%. According to the report of the United Nations Environment Programme’s Ozone Secretariat Scientific Assessment Group, if the international community does not control HFCs emissions, then by 2050, HFCs’ contribution to global CO2 emissions will reach 25%, which will cause immeasurable effects on global climate change. Impact.
China is the world's largest producer, consumer and exporter of refrigeration products. Electricity consumption for refrigeration accounts for more than 15% of the electricity consumption of the whole society. Electricity load for air-conditioning in large and medium-sized cities accounts for about 60% of the peak summer load. The energy-saving space for main refrigeration products reaches 30%-50%.
The announcement of China’s acceptance of the "Kigali Amendment" is of great significance to the gradual reduction of HFCs globally. On the one hand, China produces about 70% of the world’s air conditioners and many other electrical appliances that use HFCs; on the other hand, most of the world’s HFCs are also produced in Chinese chemical plants. Therefore, China's approval of the "Kigali Amendment" will affect more than half of the world's production and use of HFCs.
The United States has begun to implement its "Kigali Amendment" obligations through domestic regulations. The U.S. Congress promulgated the American Innovation and Manufacturing Act at the end of 2020, requiring the mandatory reduction of HFCs nationwide in accordance with the timetable of the Kigali Amendment. Through the bill, it is expected that the United States will achieve compliance with the Kigali Amendment in early 2022.
Refrigerant substitute R290 ushered in opportunities
At present, the refrigerants R22, R32, R410A, etc. mainly used in the air-conditioning industry are all HFCs refrigerants. From an environmental and performance point of view, many institutions in China currently recognize that R290 is the only refrigerant that complies with the Kigali Amendment. Xiong Kang, deputy chief economist of the Foreign Cooperation and Exchange Center of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, once said that among the existing alternative technologies, R290 is the only technology that can meet the requirements of the Kigali Amendment.
In the field of household air-conditioning, China's home appliance industry has invested huge resources in the development of R290 technology and the marketization of products. As the world's largest manufacturer of household air conditioners, my country is the backbone of the global promotion of R290 refrigerant. As a new technology, the promotion of R290 has not been smooth sailing, but with the joint efforts of the home appliance industry, the marketization of R290 room air conditioners has finally broken the deadlock since 2018, with the production and sales of split units reaching 178,000 units.
Jiang Feng, chairman of the China Household Electrical Appliances Association, once said that although the process of marketization of R290 air conditioners is relatively difficult, after the Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol comes into effect, HFCs in the future will face the fate of reduction or even elimination; if we start Without choosing the R290 alternative technology route, we will lose the right to speak in the process of this round of refrigerant replacement, and we will have to face the secondary conversion of refrigerants, which will cause incalculable huge economic losses to our industry.